Interested in diving deeper into the themes of this year’s On the Same Page selection Interior Chinatown? Consider enrolling in one or more of the following courses.

Featured Courses (Fall 2022)

Aileen Liu

L&S 10: The On the Same Page Course

L&S 10 is a course for new students (freshmen or transfers) who would like to engage with the On the Same Page book or theme for their year in a more in-depth way than the average student might. They will take full advantage of the On the Same Page events and programming planned for the fall of each year, and will enjoy opportunities to discuss the book or theme with faculty and fellow students.

Sarah Song, Irene Bloemraad

SOCIOL C146M/LEGALST C134: Membership and Migration: Empirical and Normative Perspectives

We will explore questions about migration and membership in the contemporary world by drawing on empirical and normative perspectives. By “empirical,” we investigate what social science evidence tells us about the drivers of migration or the benefits of citizenship. By “normative,” we think through questions of what a society ought to do: what is the morally right, just, or fair thing to do about issues of migration and citizenship?

Part of the Big Ideas Courses program.

Lisa Wymore

HUM 20: Landscapes of Migration, Incarceration and Resistance

A+D @ BAMPFA is a weekly public lecture series organized by the Arts + Design Initiative and co-curated by departments throughout the campus and local and national arts organizations. Through lectures by leading scholars, artists, and public figures, students are introduced to vocabularies, forms, and histories from the many arts, design, humanities, and media disciplines represented at UC Berkeley. Students engage with the lecture series through weekly response papers and a final reflection paper. In Fall 2022, the series will explore how the arts transform understanding about the past into possibilities for the future. The course is part of the multi-genre project "A Year on Angel Island," and we'll use the former immigration and incarceration station at this meaningful spot in San Francisco Bay as a jumping-off point for exploring themes of exclusion, belonging, and resilience across geographies and genres including film, dance, literature, visual arts, and music.

Part of the Arts & Humanities Division's Humanities Courses, the Arts+Design Initiative, and the Future Histories Lab.

Writing-Intensive Courses (Fall 2022)

Lisa Yong Chiu Ng

ASAMST R2A: Reading and Composition

Through the study of the literary, political, social and psychological dimensions of representative works of Asian American literature, this course introduces students to close textual analysis, fosters critical judgment, and reinforces academic writing skills.

Jordan A Ruyle

COLWRIT R4B 006: Perspectives on Immigration 2022

A lecture/seminar satisfying the second half of the Reading & Composition requirement, R4B offers structured and sustained practice in the processes used in reading, critical analysis, and writing. Students engage with thematically-related materials from a range of genres and media. In response, they craft short pieces leading to longer expository and/or argumentative essays. Students develop a research question, draft a research essay, gather, evaluate, and synthesize information from various sources. Elements of the research process--a proposal, an annotated bibliography, an abstract, a works cited list, etc.--are submitted with the final report in a research portfolio.

Patricia Steenland

COLWRIT R4B 021: Images of History

How do we come to understand the past? Once an event recedes, we are left with an unfiltered mix of sources and perspectives, each reflecting a partial truth. In this class we will explore a major historical event of the twentieth century, the Japanese American internment, the largest violation of constitutional rights in our nation’s history. We will explore how different genres can give us different perspectives, such as films, essays, oral histories, diaries, and standard history textbooks. For the final research project, students will choose their own topic to explore from the Japanese American internment and work with primary materials found both online and at the Bancroft Library, including the Densho Digital Archive, an immensely rich collection of materials on this subject.

The Internment has been increasingly invoked as a historical parallel to issues our country faces now. This current relevance makes it all the more important to understand the event itself and its historical context.

Additional Courses (Fall 2022)

Michael M. Cohen

AFRICAM 27AC: Lives of Struggle: Minorities in a Majority Culture

The purpose of this course is to examine the many forms that the struggle of minorities can assume. The focus is on individual struggle and its outcome as reported and perceived by the individuals themselves. Members of three minority aggregates are considered: African Americans, Asian Americans (so called), and Chicano/Latino Americans. The choice of these three has to do with the different histories of members of these aggregrates. Such differences have produced somewhat different approaches to struggle.

Mark Brilliant

AMERSTD 102AC: Examining U.S. Cultures in Place: California, the West, and the World

This course will survey the history of California and the United States West from the mid-19th century to the dawn of the 21st century. It will situate this state and regional history within the relevant currents of global history, which have profoundly shaped and been shaped by California and the United States West. We will pay particular heed to those elements of California and western U.S. history that are typically associated with the state’s and region’s distinctiveness as a shifting region on the national map, potent and protean symbol in the national (and, often, international) imagination, and catalyst of world historical developments from the Gold Rush and the global guano trade it sparked in the mid-19th century, to the rise of Hollywood in the early 20th century, to the development and deployment of atomic weapons in the mid-20th century, to the emergence of Silicon Valley technological innovation and New Gilded Age income polarization in the late 20th and early 21st centuries.

Harvey C Dong

ASAMST 20AC: Asian American Communities and Race Relations

This course will be a survey of contemporary issues affecting the Asian American community. We will look at the different theories that explain the current status of Asian Americans and the interrelationship between the Asian American community, nation, and world. The course will focus on the issue of race relations, the commonalities and differences between Asian Americans and other race and ethnic groups.

Hatem Ahmad Bazian

ASAMST 128AC: Muslims in America

The course traces Islam's journey in America. It will deal with the emergence of identifiable Muslim communities throughout the U.S. and focus on patterns of migration, the ethnic makeup of such communities, gender dynamics, political identity, and cases of conversion to Islam. The course will spend considerable time on the African American, Indo-Pakistani, and Arab American Muslim communities since they constitute the largest groupings. It also examines in depth the emergence of national, regional, and local Muslim institutions, patterns of development pursued by a number of them, and levels of cooperation or antagonism. The course seeks an examination of gender relations and dynamics across the various Muslim groupings, and the internal and external factors that contribute to real and imagined crisis. The course seeks to conduct and document the growth and expansion of mosques, schools, and community centers in the greater Bay Area. Finally, no class on Islam in America would be complete without a critical examination of the impacts of 9/11 on Muslim communities, the erosion of civil rights, and the ongoing war on terrorism.

Hannah B Michell

ASAMST 138: Topics in Asian Popular Culture

Analysis of historical and contemporary issues addressed in popular media focused on a specific Asian country, such as 1990s Hong Kong cinema, fifth generation Chinese films, films of China and Taiwan, Japanese and Korean anime, South Asian and Bollywood cinema, and South Korean film and television drama.

Michael Chang

ASAMST 141: Law in the Asian American Community

Course will examine the nature, structure, and operation of selected legal institutions as they affect Asian American communities and will attempt to analyze the roles and effects of law, class, and race in American society. May be taken with 197.

Winston Tseng

ASAMST 143AC: Asian American Health

This course examines the state of Asian American health, the historical, structural, and cultural contexts of diverse Asian American communities, and the role of race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status in the production of unequal outcomes between Asian Americans and other racial/ethnic groups as well as across different Asian American subgroups.

Lisa Hirai Tsuchitani

ASAMST 146: Asian Americans and Education

This course examines the historical and contemporary issues which shape the educational experiences of Asian Americans. Critical issues such as bilingual education, university admissions, and the education of Asian immigrants as well as theoretical models of Asian American academic success will be explored and critically analyzed.

Fae Myenne Ng

ASAMST 172: Asian American Literature

Introduces students to representative works of Asian American literature by writers from the major ethnic subgroups; examines the works in their sociohistorical context; analyzes thematic and formal elements intertextually to form a coherent understanding of the Asian American literary tradition.

Pablo Gonzalez

CHICANO 159: Mexican Immigration

This course provides an overview of Mexican immigration to the United States. The relationship between immigration and Chicano community formation will be examined. Issues addressed include settlement patterns, socialization, educational aspiration, identity transformation, and historical changes.

Weihong Bao

CHINESE 282: Modern Chinese Film Studies

(Graduate-level course) Directed study of modern Chinese film. Emphasis varies from year to year.

Daniel Cuong O'Neill, Jinsoo An

EALANG 181: East Asian Film: Special Topics in Genre

The study of East Asian films as categorized either by industry-identified genres (westerns, horror films, musicals, film noir, etc.) or broader interpretive modes (melodrama, realism, fantasy, etc).

Poulomi Saha

ENGLISH 31AC: Literature of American Cultures: The Wild, Wild West-- California and the Politics of Possibility

The Golden State – fast fame, endless sunshine, and gold in the ground. California has long occupied an iconic place in the American and global imagination as the land of limitless opportunity, utopian pinnacle of the promise getting ahead, making it big, and living large. This course takes up the question California as a site of political possibility. We will take up the fraught relationship between dreams of economic prosperity and neocolonial violence that underpin a popular cultural fascination with the state and the idea of the “wild west” more generally. From Spanish missions and Anglo settler colonialism to the Gold Rush and Chinese Exclusion, we will begin with the conflicted origins of racial diversity, before moving on to a variety of political formations that emerged in the 20th century: Free Love counterculture, the IOAT occupation of Alcatraz, the Free Speech Movement, the development of Ethnic Studies, agricultural workers movements, anti-immigrant violence, Reaganism, and other radical imaginations.

This course, which satisfies the American Cultures requirement, engages a range of historical, sociological, and theoretical material to understand how ethnic and racial categories have been formed and produced in America. Students will develop a critical vocabulary for race, gender, and class in contemporary America and an understanding of their historical antecedents. This course will require you to demonstrate skill in researching, planning and writing papers, incorporating an analytical understanding of key concepts in the course, and the capacity to engage scholarly debates in the field of Ethnic American literature.

See also

Nadia D. Ellis

ENGLISH 133T: The Art of Black Diaspora

The black diaspora is, amongst other things, a literary tradition: a complex, cross-generic set of texts produced by black writers located in almost every nation across the globe, equal in complexity and variation to the modern concept of race that is inextricably tied to its formation. But how can one conceptual framework possibly contain such a dazzlingly various canon? In this class we’ll read novels, watch films, listen to music, and look at art to begin to answer that question. We'll read critics and thinkers to understand the history of black diaspora, the political implications of its formations, and the theories underwriting its vibrant and varied aesthetics. We will move through a broad sweep of the twentieth century and into the contemporary moment, and we'll cover a wide variety of contexts and genres. This variety and breadth is crucial to laying a foundation in the field and to opening up the issue of identity-across-difference that is fundamental in black diasporic culture.

Celeste G Langan

ENGLISH 175: Literature and Disability: States of Exception

From the blind poet to the fat detective to the “twisted” villain, literature often foregrounds bodily difference as an exceptional condition. What are the stakes and effects of literature’s interest in the exception—and in implied or engendered norms? What correspondences might there between different kinds of the atypical: between “beauty” and “deformity” (Adam calls Eve a “fair defect” in Paradise Lost), poetry and disfluency, over- and under-achievement? To address these and other questions, we’ll read a selection of texts that work at once to represent disability and to "crip" norms of representation. We’ll also consider disability in relation to disablement: the effects of impaired and impairing environments on the capacity to flourish. Assignments will include two essays, a group or individual presentation project, and regular, thoughtful discussion posts. There will be no final exam, but regular attendance and participation are required. This is a core course for the disability studies minor.

See also

Juana Maria Rodriguez

ETHSTD 11AC: Introduction to Ethnic Studies

This explores the work of key theorists of race, ethnicity, and de-colonization whose work and ideas have formed the basis of scholarly work in the broad, interdisciplinary field of comparative ethnic studies. It is intended both to offer beginning students a ground in the ideas and methods they will encounter throughout their major, and to introduce names, texts, and concepts with which all majors should be familiar. This course satisfies the American cultures requirement.

Gregory P. Choy

ETHSTD 130: The Making of Multicultural America: A Comparative Historical Perspective

How and why did American society become racially and ethnically diverse? This comparative study of racial minorities and European immigrant groups examines selected historical developments, events, and themes from the 17th century to the present.

Gregory P. Choy

ETHSTD 150: People of Mixed Racial Descent

Deals with phenomenon of people of mixed-race descent, focusing on United States but with reference to other nations for comparative purposes. Includes historical perspective as well as exploring the psychology, sociology, literature, and cinema pertaining to topic.

Diana M Negrin

ETHSTD 180: Diaspora, Identity and Place

For thousands of years people have journeyed—voluntarily or not—to new geographies, bringing with them personal and collective histories, rhythms, and aesthetics. This course examines the work of diaspora in shaping cultural identities and transforming places. We will pay specific attention to diasporic communities based in the United States and greater Western Hemisphere (Abya Yala), utilizing music, art, poetry, fiction and non-fiction to illustrate the stories and pathways of these diverse communities. Through the themes of diaspora, identity and place, this course will explore the distinct forces that have led to the dispersal of people from their original homelands to new spaces that offer both opportunity and subjugation. In this way, we will understand identity as a highly fluid concept that is deeply informed by history and geography.

Clancy Wilmott

GEOG 10AC: Worldings: Regions, Peoples and States

Geography is a way of thinking deeply and expansively about our place in the world and this course is designed to transform how you think about America though understanding its place within a global context. Through concepts central to the field of geography such as space, nature, empire and globalization we will explore the issues of race, culture, ethnicity that pepper the pages of newspapers almost every day in stories of immigration, police violence, global warming, ethnic cleansing, and terrorism. We explore these issues in a way that will change how you understand both America and the world.

Seth R. Lunine

GEOG 50AC: California

California had been called "the great exception" and "America, only more so." Yet few of us pay attention to its distinctive traits and to its effects beyond our borders. California may be "a state of mind," but it is also the most dynamic place in the most powerful country in the world, and would be the 8th largest economy if it were a country. Its wealth has been built on mining, agriculture, industry, trade, and finance. Natural abundance and geographic advantage have played their parts, but the state's greatest resource has been its wealth and diversity of people, who have made it a center of technological and cultural innovation from Hollywood to Silicon Valley. Yet California has a dark side of exploitation and racialization.

Darren C Zook

GLOBAL 24: Freshman Seminar: Identity, Diversity, and Social Justice: America in a Global Perspective

Diversity is perhaps the most important social issue in America. As a concept, diversity includes and relates to a number of other issues, such as racism, discrimination, social justice, immigration, marginality, integration, and so forth. Many a program has been put in place to address and resolve these issues, in the hope that, over time, America would come together and make all of its differences work collectively as one harmonious and integrated society. For some people, this is already happening. For others, America seems more divided now than ever, and diversity has failed to deliver on its promise. This seminar will delve into the complexities of this thing we call diversity, to explore the rhetoric and the reality of diversity as it currently exists in America. We will do this by reading accounts of diversity as it happens—not just in the news but also in a variety of different media—and then learning how to discuss critically the central issues of diversity. The goal is not just to talk about diversity, but also to learn how to talk about diversity in ways that are both critical and constructive. Diversity is an extraordinarily sensitive issue, and too many people simply avoid the conversation to avoid the discomfort that might ensue.

Part of the Freshman and Sophomore Seminar Program.

Keiko Yamanaka

GLOBAL 150Q: Immigration and Multiculturalism in Asia

Advanced multidisciplinary research in current issues and topics related to Asia. This Global Studies course will focus on specific issues related to Asia with appropriate comparative material included.

Minoo Moallem

GWS 236: Diaspora, Border, and Transnational Identities

(Graduate-level course) This course will study debates around the notions of home, location, migrancy, mobility, and dislocation by focusing on issues of gender and sexuality. We will examine the ways in which various cultural flows have fundamentally challenged and changed the nature of global economy by expanding mobility of capital, labor, and systems of representations in a transnational context. We will also look at the impact of new technologies in production, distribution, communication, and circulation of cultural meanings and social identites by linking nationalism, immigration, diaspora, and globalization to the process of subject formation in a postcolonial context.

Mark Brilliant

HISTORY 128AC: California, the West, and the World: From Gold and Guano to Google and the New Gilded Age

This course will survey the history of California and the United States West from the mid-19th century to the dawn of the 21st century. It will situate this state and regional history within the relevant currents of global history, which have profoundly shaped and been shaped by California and the United States West. We will pay particular heed to those elements of California and western U.S. history that are typically associated with the state’s and region’s distinctiveness as a shifting region on the national map, potent and protean symbol in the national (and, often, international) imagination, and catalyst of world historical developments from the Gold Rush and the global guano trade it sparked in the mid-19th century, to the rise of Hollywood in the early 20th century, to the development and deployment of atomic weapons in the mid-20th century, to the emergence of Silicon Valley technological innovation and New Gilded Age income polarization in the late 20th and early 21st centuries.

Winnie Won Yin Wong, Kimberly Yu

HUM 196: Mentored Research: Unlocatable: Seeing Hong Kong and its Arts

A city of great change and tiny spaces for them, Hong Kong abounds in contradictions and movement. Marked by a history of migration, refuge, exile, and capital flows, its preferred cultural forms are fleeting ones, born of dislocation and relocation. What is the relationship between an art form and the place in which it was produced? How do we communicate the particularities of a location while doing justice to the universality of an artwork's expression? This course immerses students in the history of the arts in Hong Kong, the Pearl River Delta region, and its diasporas. Students will research art in many media, from comedy to graphic design, from kung fu to video art. Collaborating with the Asian Art Museum, students will produce digital materials for public engagement. The course will culminate in an online exhibition of students' work, an effort to "locate" and "see" Hong Kong and its arts.

Keywords: Art, Media, Curatorial Practice, Hong Kong, Pearl River Delta

Mentored Research courses are designed to introduce you to the research culture on campus in a small group format. Students will work closely with faculty members and graduate-student mentors in both seminar-style cohorts and more focused groups. The courses provide mentorship, support, and feedback as students work on individual research projects. The Mentored Research course is designed for upper-division students who are getting to know research resources and methods at Berkeley. Courses will provide topical instruction and responsive workshops as well as expert, individualized mentoring.

Fang Xu

ISF 100C: Language and Identity

This course examines the role of language in the construction of social identities, and how language is tied to various forms of symbolic power at the national and international levels.? Drawing on case studies from Southeast Asia, Europe, Canada, and the U.S., we will pay special attention to topics such as the legitimization of a national language, the political use of language in nation-building processes, the endangerment of indigenous languages, and processes of linguistic subordination and domination. This course will be interdisciplinary in its attempt to understand language in terms of history, politics, anthropology and sociology.

Jinsoo An

KOREAN 188: Cold War Culture in Korea: Literature and Film

This course examines the formation and transformation of global Cold War culture in South Korean literature and film of the 20th century. It pays close attention to representations of the Korean War and its aftermath in literature and cinema, but opens up the field of inquiry to encompass larger sociocultural issues related to the Cold War system manifest in literature and cinema. All readings are in English.

Kathryn R. Abrams

LEGALST 133AC: Law and Social Change: The Immigrant Rights Movement

This course will explore the relationship between social movements and the law: it will take as its focus the movement for immigrant rights, increasingly led by undocumented activists. It will ask how legal action -- statutes, regulations, judicial decisions, and policies and practices of enforcement, at both state and federal levels -- has spurred the formation of a social movement, and how that movement has sought to influence, resist, and transform the law.

Christopher Lawrence Tomlins

LEGALST 173AC: Making Empire: Law and the Colonization of America

This is an intro to the origins, development, and expansion of European settlement on the North American mainland. We will concentrate on the impulses – commercial, ideological, and racial – that drove European colonizing; the migrations (voluntary and forced) that sustained it; and the political and legal “technologies” that supplied it with definition, explanation, and institutional capacity. We will pay attention to themes of sovereignty, civic identity, race, and “manifest destiny” and will discuss how law provided both the language and technical capacity to transform territory into property, people into slaves, and the land’s indigenous inhabitants into “others” who existed “outside” the civic order of the American Republic.

Hatem Ahmad Bazian

MELC 158AC: Middle East: Post-Colonialism, Migration, and Diaspora

The course focuses on the impacts of migration and displacement of people from postcolonial Middle East region and the U.S. legal, political, social, and religious discourse on cross-cultural and ethical issues which arise in immigration practice while placing the phenomena within a global and transnational context. The course seeks to draw connections between Middle Eastern migration and diaspora in the colonial and postcolonial periods leading to the modern period of restrictive immigration policies, building of walls in North America, targeting Arab and Muslim immigrants as well as all immigrants from the Global South.

Timothy D Crockett

PHILOS 117AC: The Philosophy of Race, Ethnicity, and Citizenship

This course explores philosophical questions of race, ethnicity, and citizenship, with special attention to the experiences of African Americans, Asian Americans, Latino Americans, and indigenous peoples of the United States. Topics include the meaning of “race,” “ethnicity,” and “citizenship,” border control and immigration, reparations for past wrongs, discrimination and affirmative action, civic obligation and group solidarity, and the right to vote.

Erika Weissinger

PUBPOL 117AC: Race, Ethnicity, and Public Policy

The objective of this course is to use the tools and insights of public policy analysis as a means of understanding the ways in which policies are shaped by and respond to issues of race, ethnicity, and cultural difference. The course is organized around a series of discrete policy problems involving issues of race and ethnicity. It is designed to allow for comparative analysis within and across cases to explore the variety of ways in which policy intersects with different racial and ethnic groups.

Nadesan Permaul

RHETOR 152AC: Race and Order in the New Republic

This course will explore how the social issue of race in the new American republic shaped the political founding of the United States in 1787. We will investigate perceptions of race at the time of the founding, and try to understand the origins of those perceptions. We will examine how those same perceptions affected the founding and establishment of a new nation and how they have affected our contemporary social and political discourse.

Lisandro Claudio

SEASIAN 167: Contemporary Popular Cultures of the Philippines

This course is an overview of Philippine culture from the mid-twentieth century until present, with an emphasis on film, pop music, television, popular journalism, and food cultures. It examines the evolution of Philippine culture in light of broadcast and digital media.

Joanna M. Reed

SOCIOL 130AC: Social Inequalities: American Cultures

This course explores the causes and consequences of inequality in the U.S. We will begin by discussing concepts and theories scholars use to understand and measure different forms of inequality and explain its persistence. We will then turn to the main mechanisms and institutions important in structuring inequality in the U.S., including education, labor markets, welfare policy and family structure, residential segregation and neighborhoods, health and the environment and the criminal justice system. Within each topic area, we will pay special attention to the significance of race and ethnicity, social class and gender. This course satisfies the American Cultures requirement.

Laleh Behbehanian

SOCIOL 131AC: Race and Ethnic Relations: U.S. American Cultures

Course focuses on race and ethnic relations in the United States. Examination of historical experiences, contemporary circumstances, and future prospects of racial and ethnic populations with particular attention to trends in relations between the dominant society and the African American, Native American, Asian American, and Latino subcultures. Political and social consequences of racial and ethnic stratification are explored.

John Lie

SOCIOL 179 001: Selected Topics in Area Studies (Contemporary East Asia)

From the "rise of China" to K-pop, contemporary East Asia garners considerable attention around the world. The course is an overview of contemporary East Asia and we investigate among others the topics of economic change and popular culture.

Kim Voss

SOCIOL 190 002: Seminar and Research in Sociology: Social Movements and Immigration

Until recently, social movement scholars have paid little attention to collective action on the part of immigrants, especially non-citizen immigrants, either in their empirical research or in their theorizing about protest movements. The upsurge in pro-immigrant activism over the past 20 years calls this neglect into question and raises questions about whether we need to alter how we understand, research, and theorize social movements. The first couple weeks of the seminar will provide an overview of the conceptual toolkit social movement scholars have developed to explain the emergence and fate of iconic movements such as the civil rights, women’s, and LBGTQ movements. We will then turn to readings about the recent upsurge in pro-immigrant mobilization, asking if and how we need to rethink our research strategies and theories if we are to understand pro-immigrant collective action. Each student will write a research paper on some specific episode or aspect of collective action around immigration, based either on original data (interviews, documents, etc.) or an assessment of the relevant scholarship.

Jill A. Bakehorn

SOCIOL 190 003: Seminar and Research in Sociology

This course will explore how bodies are represented in popular culture, drawing upon theories in sociology, cultural studies, and feminist studies to make sense of these representations. We will analyze popular cultural representations from a range of genres that demonstrate oppression and domination of certain groups, as well as exploring examples of resistance.

We will explore questions such as: How are gender, sexuality, race, ability, body size, and class represented in popular culture? How do representations of bodies challenge hegemonic norms and how do they uphold them? What is the importance of cultural representations? What do they tell us about the social world? What are the different meanings attached to different bodies, to different body parts?

Samuel R Lucas

SOCIOL 190 005: Seminar and Research in Sociology: Sociology of Discrimination

Discrimination is a social phenomenon that could implicate people of different races, ages, sexes, genders, religions, sexual orientations, heights, weights, physical capabilities, and more. Given this possibility, the course introduces and analyzes the major social science definitions of discrimination, then turns its attention to considering the social scientific challenge of establishing the existence and effects of discrimination. The third part of the course critically considers multiple potential policy responses to discrimination.

We will explore questions such as: How are gender, sexuality, race, ability, body size, and class represented in popular culture? How do representations of bodies challenge hegemonic norms and how do they uphold them? What is the importance of cultural representations? What do they tell us about the social world? What are the different meanings attached to different bodies, to different body parts?